Aim of the Course:

Purpose of the course is presentation of modern technology – hardware, software and procedure in measurement in armament. The course covers: basic descriptions and properties of random data, measuring standards, types of testing and measurement, measuring equipment, general measuring methods, specific measurement in armament, laboratory and proving ground testing, environmental testing, data acquisition, data processing and data reduction, estimates of statistical characteristics, measurement uncertainty analysis and measured data presentation. Practical experience can be gained in course Pracitical Exercises in Measurements.

Who should attend?

The course is designed for the students on universities of technology and military academies, for the engineers – researchers in the research institutions and engineers in the productions factories. The subject is very specific and multidisciplinary, so for the successful performing the course the students should have good basic knowledge in mathematics, physics, probability theory, statistics, system theory, computer skill and weapon systems.


Duration is two weeks (twelve working days); 48 lectures (one lecture duration 45min), but other arrangement is possible.

Course Outline

1. Types of Weapon and Equipment Testing. Types of Data
Testing in research and development phase. Testing the prototypes. Test standards and procedures. Testing in production. Testing in operation. Types of measured data - deterministic and random data. Random processes and their characteristics.
2. Measurement Types and Errors
Laboratory measurement. Static tests and dynamic measurement. Direct, indirect, and combined measurements. Classification of measurement errors. Estimation of measurement errors and uncertainties. Presentation of results of measurements.
3. Measuring Equipment
Measuring system and measuring chain. Sensor (transducer) theory. General sensor characteristics. Types of sensors. Sensor calibration – techniques, standard and procedure. Transducer electronic data sheet (teds). Basis of and types of amplifier. Operational amplifier. Charge amplifier. Data acquisition – an introduction.
4. Strain Gage Based Measurements
Deformation and tension measurement. Strain gages. Wheatstone bridge. Forces and moments measurement by strain gages. Measurement of recoil force on guns.
5. Measurement Based on Piezoelectric Transducers
Piezoelectric transducer. Charge and ICP transducers. Forces and moments measurement with piezoelectric transducers.
6. Pressures and Over-pressures Measurement
Piezoelectric transducers for pressures and over-pressures measurement. Measuring pressure in gun barrel. Crushers and crusher gauges.
7. Temperature Measurement
Thermocouple measurement and signal conditioning. Measuring temperature with RTD. Measurement of temperature on barrels. “Eroding” Thermocouple. Measuring of temperature on squibs, igniters, propellants and rocket nozzles.
8. Oscillation and Vibration Measurements
Oscillation and vibration measurement. Vibration transducers and amplifiers. Vibration data reduction and analysis in time and frequency domain. Measurement of vibration on guns and rocket launchers.
9. Rocket Motor Characteristics Measurements
Thrust and pressure in rocket engine measurement. Six component thrust vector measurement. Data filtering.
10. High Speed Phenomena Measurement
High speed phenomena measurement. Rotating mirror camera. High-speed imaging system based on CCD technology.
11. Measuring of Mechanical Characteristics
Mass center of inertia and moment of inertia measurement. Measurement of vehicle weight and centre of gravity.
12. Muzzle Velocity Measurement by Barriers
Electromagnetic barriers. Optical barriers. Error of measurement. Reduction of the velocity to the muzzle point.
13. Doppler Radars
Doppler shift. Radar corrections. Rate of fire measurement. Characteristics of Doppler radar.
14. Projectile Velocity Measurement in Barrel
Methods of discrete measurement. Isolated wire switches method. Optical light barriers – switches method. Direct optical method. Methods of continuous measurement. Microwave and laser interferometers.

Lecturer: Dr Miodrag Curcin