﻿ ProSTools - Classical Aerodynamics of Projectiles and Rockets

## CLASSICAL AERODYNAMICS OF PROJECTILES AND ROCKETS

#### Aim of the Course:

Purpose of the course is to gain the general knowledge in aerodynamics of bodies of revolution, low and high aspect ratio wings and body-wing configurations. The lectures will cover mostly the linear theory. Numerical examples are run by professional dedicated programs using “practical data” to illustrate the capability of the theory.

#### Who should attend?

The course is intended for students, engineers - researchers in the research institutions and engineers in the productions factories. It is basic course in aerodynamics, but it is assumed that attendants have good knowledge in gas dynamics and mathematics. Deeper knowledge can be obtained from the courses Guided Weapon Aerodynamics and Aerodynamic Design of Tactical Weapons.

#### Duration:

Duration is two weeks (twelve working days); 50 lectures (one lecture duration 45min), but other arrangement is possible.

#### Course Outline

 1. Basic Information from Aerodynamics Properties an ideal fluid, Influence of Viscosity on the flow of a fluid, Pressure and shear stress, Forces acting on a moving body, Compressibility of a gas, Mach and Reynolds number, Similarity of fluid flow, Forces and moments on Projectile.
 2. Review of Thermodynamic and Fluid Dynamic Equations Continuity equation of gas flow, Flow rate equation, Stream function, Vortex lines, Stokes theorem, Vortex-Induced, velocities, Parallel flow, Two-dimensional point source and Sink, Three-dimensional Source and sink, Doublet, Vortex flow.
 3. Friction and Boundary Layer Theory Viscosity of air, Viscous shear flow, Basis of boundary layer theory, Flat plate in viscous incompressible flow, Viscous drag, Influence of Temperature and Mach number.
 4. Potential Equations and Small Perturbation Theory Potential equations, Small perturbation theory, Prandtl-Glauert equation, Linearized boundary conditions, Linearized coefficient of pressure.
 5. Shock Wave Theory and Isentropic Waves Normal chock theory, Oblique shock waves, Weak shock, isentropic waves.
 6. Cone in a Supersonic Flow Features of Supersonic Flow, System of Equations for Axisymmetric Flow over a Sharp-Nosed Cone, Flow over a Cone with a Spherical Nose, Flow over a Flat Nose, Drag of a Slender Cone with Slight Blunting.
 7. Airfoil and Finite-Span Wing in an Incompressible Flow Two-dimensional potential flow of incompressible fluid, Main for and moment of pressure forces - Blasius Chaplygin formula, Joukovski theorem, Flat plate under angle of attack, Kutta-Joukovski condition and lift, Thin airfoil theory, Wing of finite span in incompressible flow, Lifting line theory, Lifting surface theory - Vortex lattice method.
 8. Airfoil and Finite-Span Wing in a Compressible Subsonic Flow Influence of compressibility on aerodynamic coefficients, Airfoil and wing in compressible flow, Critical Mach number, Wave drag, swept wing of infinite span, Lift and drag of trapezoidal wing of finite span.
 9. Airfoil and Finite-Span Wing in a Supersonic Flow Wing airfoil in supersonic flow, linear theory of thin airfoil in supersonic flow, Pressure coefficient, Normal and axial force on airfoil, Nonlinear theory, Wing of finite span in supersonic flow, Influence of mach number and geometry, similarity parameters, Normal and axial force on trapezoidal wing in supersonic flow.
 10. Slender Body Theory Basis of slender body theory (SBT), Cross flow model, Aerodynamics of slender bodies of revolution, Nonlinear normal force and centre of pressure on slender body – viscous cross-flow theory Aerodynamics of slender wings.
 11. Wing-Body Interference Nature of body wing interference, Application of SBT on body-wing combination, Effective angle of attack, Body wing interference coefficients.
 12. Base and afterbody drag Base drag of bodies of revolution, Drag of contraction and flared afterbody, Optimal afterbody shape.
 13. Projectile Aerodynamic Characteristics General expression for normal force and center of pressure of body-wing, Body-wing-tail combination, Static and dynamic derivative at small angle angles, Numerical example.
 14. Review Methods of Calculation of Aerodynamic Characteristics Review of the method of prediction of aerodynamic coefficients, Panel methods, Semiempirical method, CFD methods based on Euler and Navier-Stokes equations.

Lecturer: Dr Miodrag Curcin