Aim of the Course:

Purpose of the course is to gain the general knowledge in design of artillery projectiles. Numerical examples are run by professional dedicated programs using “practical data” to illustrate the capability of the theory.

Who should attend?

The course is intended for students, engineers - researchers in the research institutions and engineers in the productions factories. It is basic course in projectile design.


Duration is four weeks (twenty working days); 100 lectures (one lecture duration 45min), but other arrangement is possible.

Course Outline

1. Artillery Ammunition - General
Types and Classification of Complete Rounds. Types of Projectiles. Projectile Components. Fuzes, Boosters, and Detonators. Explosives. Propelling Charges. General Design Requirements.
2. Basic Flight Characteristics
Forces and Moments Acting on Projectile in Flight. Drag, Ballistic Coefficients and Form Coefficient. Aerodynamic Shaping for Minimum Drag. Importance of Muzzle Velocity. Design for Maximum Range or Minimum Time of Flight. Overturning Moment and Gyroscopic Stability - Requirement for rotation. Gyroscopic Stability Coefficient.
3. Motion of Projectile in Barrel
Elements of Launching Process. Forces and Moments Acting on Projectile. Pressure in the Barrel. Equation of Projectile Motion in Barrel. Speed vs. Time and Speed vs. Path Diagram. Muzzle Speed (Velocity). Riffling. Relation between Angular rate and Velocity.
4. Basis of the Physics of Explosion
Characteristics of High Explosives. Initiation of HE. Shock and Detonation Waves. Products of Detonation, Blast Effect. Types of configuration Explosive – Metal. Methods of Detonation Wave Shape Controlling.
5. Fragmentation Effect
Fragmentation. Effectives on Target. Design for Fragmentation Effect.
6. Demolition Effect
Demolition Effect in Air. Demolition Effect on Ground. Demolition Effect under Water.
7. Design for Safety Inside the Bore
Main Requirements. Acceleration Loads and safety Factors. Stresses in Projectile Case and Determination of the Case Wall Thickness.
8. Rotating Band
Role of the rotating (driving) band. Normal force. Driving band wearing. Driving band loads and safety conditions.
9. Aerodynamic Shaping
Fuze Shape. Nose Shape. Rotating Band. Centering Band. Cylindrical Part. After-body shape. Characteristics of Some Projectiles in Service.
10. Inspection Aspects of Artillery Ammunition Design
Quality Assurance Aspects of Projectile Design. Effect of Dimensioning and Tolerancing on Inspection.
11. Manufacture - Basic Information
Introduction. Forging of HE Shells. Machining of HE Shells. Cold Extrusion of HE Shell Compromise Method of Shell Forming. Explosive Filling.

Lecturer: Mr Bozidar Zakula